it is 1st of December and it is World AIDS Day.
These are some quick facts for you …
Every 12 seconds someone contracts HIV
Every 16 seconds someone dies from AIDS
Number of people with HIV in 2007:
- 33,000,000 total
- 31,000,000 adults
- 15,500,000 women
- 2,000,000 children
Number of AIDS deaths in 2007:
- 2,000,000 total
- 1,700,000 adults
- 270,000 children
those are just some figures for you to realise how serious the infectious disease is. check out this website if you want to know more about WORLD AIDS DAY.
Here is a poll for you to vote, if you are interested..
check these slides out if you want to know more about HIV/AIDS. This powerpoint presentation was actually my biology group presentation. so i do apologise if some words are too greek for you guys to understand.. =p
it was not actually a job attachment but more like an exposure to the reality of a phamacist’s world. i wanted to do for like at least 2 days, but there’s nothing much i can do but sitting there and watch them working. the real thing is that i’m absolutely ‘zero’ in this pharmacy thingy. not knowing how to calculate the amount of sufficient dosage, the concentration of this and that, not knowing the side effect of this drug n blablabla.. so even the head of pharmacy department did not know what kind of task can be handed over to me.. so she decided to just show me every branch of clinical pharmacy.. so i decided one day would be more than enough..
i was guided by a PRP (provisional registered pharmacist) syafiq, or maybe i should say a FRP (fully registered pharmacist) because he’s done with the pre-registration and now waiting for his placement to do his 3 years compulsory service. these are the places that we went :
1) supply and storage :
this is where every single supply of medicines or medical instruments are stored before being supplied to each departments in the hospital. all medicines are stored under room temperature such as 25C and some are stored at cold temperature (2C-9C), this is mostly true for injection liquid like insulin. a pharmacy officer is incharged in this deparment. ensure the availability of each product, manage in-and-out of each item and deal with the manufacturer and …
2) ICC :
im not sure of the abbreviation and what it stands for.. i would say this is the busiest branch compared to others.. this is where outpatients will go n take their medical prescription written by the doctors, over the counter (OTC). this is not the first-come-first-serve basis. first of all, the pharmacists will screen the prescriptions, to ensure its reliability, approve it and give the waiting numbers according to the patients condition and age. some patients might have to wait up to 2 hours to get their medicines..
the dispensing, packaging and labelling of medicines all happen in this department as some medicines are bought in bulk. this usually for the weekly or monthly-basis-medicines. besides, the syrup-type-medicines are also prepared here. where tablets will be crashed into powder using mortar and pestle and then being added with some kind of substances which i forgot.. forming syrup..
3) satellite pharmacy :
the one that supplies medicines to the inpatients. the job is more or less the same, screen the medical prescription, approve it, dispense and supply.
4) TDM (therapeutics drug monitoring) :
measure the medication level in blood. there is a specific machine for this purpose by taking the sample of patients’ blood. this especially for drugs that have narrow therapeutics range which means those which can easily be under or over dosed. eg vancomycin, gentamicin and phenytoin. insufficient levels will lead to undertreatment or resistance, and excessive levels can lead to toxicity and tissue damage. basically this branch of clinical pharmacy involves lots of calculation.
this procedure is usually done when the doctors want to monitor the medication level or when there is suspicion of toxicity in the patients’ blood. lets say, toxicity occurs, the pharmacist will suggest to either increase/decrease the dosage amount of the drug given to the patients with the suggested amount.
5) TPN (total parenteral nutrition … kot) :
preparing the IV liquid for the patients, mostly babies n those who cant consume orally. its prepared in a specialised room, apparel and condition to ensure that the substances are sterilised. some of the contents of the liquid are glucose, lipids, salts, amino acids and vitamins according to their specific proportion.
6) TDR (kot.. cant remember) :
not quite sure the exact role.. but it deals with the preparation for drug regiment. especially for cancer diseases. the drugs are mostly expensive and dangerous. thus only well trained pharmacists are allowed to perform the task.
7) DIS/DIC (drug information service/drug information centre)
salam.. there were 2 friendly debates took place yesterday n not so many students were informed regarding the debates.. well i got no comment bout it. both were run at the same time at LT1 and LT2.
im quite interested in this debate thingy.. e/though im not a debater myself (but i did join a competition once…longlong time agoo =p), so i was determined to go eventhough i havent done with my revision yet.. durh… seems like i ever have… so i went to the acad all by myself since none of my chaletmates were willing to sacrifice their time for such an academic ‘argument’. lol.. no offence..=D.
i went to LT2. once i arrived, there were few KMB supporters were sitting inside the hall. n no KYUEM-ians at all.. so wut?? i just walked in and sat at the back.. belakang sekali………. the debate was scheduled to begin at 11am. n it was already 11am.. n so i wait n wait while marking my stats paper.. until……….. like.. 12pm i guess.. well i guess something wrong with the management ..
i gues this debate thingy is completely handled by the students to be more specific the debating society because even the judges were the students. those who are expert n well-experienced in debating. anyway, the motion for yesterday’s debatre was:
Nuclear Energy, The Solution To The Rising Cost of Energy
To be honest, both teams were excellent with their great speeches and brilliant facts. Some of the facts that i can pick up are, Germany as one of the nations that generates nuclear energy, are planning to shut down all 90 its nuclear power plants by 2020 and all the power plants for most energy source have to be rebuilt after 30-40 years to maintain its effiency.
in my opinion, i would say no to nuclear energy eventhough the power that it can generate is millions times the power that being generated by other resources such as petroleum, solar, hydro. eventhough it is efficient in a way. why?? the source of the nuclear energy such as uranium is extremely radioactive substances which can lead to many health problems such as cancers and deformities due to changes in the sequence of the nucleic acids in our double-stranded DNA. this is what is happening in Japan rite now which is facing the consequences of the dopping of atomic bombs during world war II.
Yes, it is undeniable that nuclear energy is efficient, clean, and the sources are abundant. but the risk to start it out is too high. the high-class engineers can set up all the laws and regulation, the protocols, do all the high-tech maintainace work and so on to avoid errors. but still can we 100% guarantee that there will be no mistakes being made.. human still human.. im not saying that other power plants are not risky but radioactive-based source is too too risky for the humankind to live with.
lets say, there is some kind of tiny error in the generation process or during the maintanance work or maybe during the sealing process of the wastes products back into the sea which might lead to the exposure of the radioactive substances to the living organisms which will last not for 1 or 2 years but perhaps in few ten years. n not only the present community will endure the effects but as well as the next generation. do we want that to happen? are we ready and prepared enough to take the risk? are we willing to jeopardize our own generation ??? think..
well.. those are my humble thoughts on this ever-controversial issue. therefore.. i rest my case.. =p
LONDON: Mereka yang menggunakan mekap dan produk penjagaan diri setiap hari didakwa berdepan risiko bahaya termasuk barah, penuaan awal dan alahan kulit apabila tubuh mereka menyerap hampir 2.26 kilogram bahan kimia produk berkenaan setiap tahun
Akhbar Telegraph melaporkan, amaran oleh pakar dan persatuan kesihatan Britain mengaitkan risiko itu sebagai hasil campuran dan tindak balas kimia produk itu serta tindakan pengguna menggunakan produk yang sudah tamat tarikh luputnya.
Ia disebabkan kebanyakan pengguna khususnya wanita menggunakan lebih 20 jenis produk bahan kecantikan berbeza sehari bagi memastikan wajah kelihatan menarik. Malangnya, sekurang-kurangnya sembilan daripada 10 produk yang digunakan itu sebaliknya sudah tamat tempoh atau luput tarikh penggunaannya.
Pakar biokimia Britain, Richard Bence mendakwa penggantungan sepenuhnya kepada produk mekap dan dandanan diri bermakna pengguna membenarkan tubuh mereka diresapi bahan kimia berkenaan.
“Ada di antara kandungan bahan mekap itu menggunakan sintetik atau tiruan yang sememangnya diketahui boleh memberi kesan sampingan termasuk alahan kulit, barah serta penuaan awal. Sudah tiba masanya kita mempersoalkan produk yang saban hari disapu pada kulit dan tidak membuat andaian yang kandungan bahan kimianya selamat,” katanya.
Bence terbabit dalam penyelidikan tiga tahun ke atas produk mekap yang lazim digunakan.
“Sebagai pengguna, kita sendiri tidak pasti kesannya apabila bahan kimia itu dicampur. Kesannya mungkin jauh lebih besar daripada secalit krim atau bedak yang digunakan,” kata Bence.
Beliau yang menekankan kepentingan penggunaan produk kecantikan berasaskan bahan organik berkata bahan kimia yang diserap menerusi kulit jauh lebih bahaya daripada ditelan.
“Bayangkan gincu yang disapu pada bibir dan bahan kimia itu dipecahkan oleh enzim dalam air liur dan di dalam perut. Perlu diingat, bahan kimia itu terus diserap ke dalam darah yang sememangnya tidak dilindungi.”
Amaran penggunaan gincu dan maskara yang sudah tamat tarikh luputnya turut dibuat Persatuan Pakar Mata Diraja Britain yang mendakwa produk itu ‘lubuk’ bakteria bahaya.
“Pengguna mekap, termasuk maskara itu perlu terlebih dulu bertanyakan diri sendiri sama ada tindakan menyapu muka dengan beratus-ratus bahan kimia yang berbeza itu berbaloi atau tidak. Apakah ia satu kemestian,” kata Clio Turton, jurucakap persatuan.
Antara bahan kimia yang bahaya adalah jenis paraben (asid para-hydroxybenzoic) yang digunakan dalam produk termasuk sabun, deodoran dan losen bayi. Malah sisa paraben ditemui dalam sampel barah payu dara biarpun kaitannya dipertikaikan. Bahan kimia sodium sulfat yang digunakan bagi menghasilkan sabun, syampu, buih krim pencukur, ubat gigi dan buih mandian, didakwa menyebabkan alahan kulit.
Sementara itu, Persatuan Kosmetik, Produk Penjagaan Diri dan Pewangi berkata, orang ramai tidak perlu bimbang kerana produk itu dilindungi peraturan Kesatuan Eropah (EU) dan dijamin selamat. – Agensi
Haha… selamat 🙂 sbb ainol x main lah make-up2 ni…. sbb kl guna make-up, its not a ‘natural beauty’..tul tak2????